MIGRAINES

Migraine is common all over the world, it has been estimated that it affects around 1 in every 5 women and around 1 in every 15 men.Migraine is not a just common headache, it is a chronic condition affecting all aspect of life. 90% of people who suffer from migraines are unable to function or work properly during their migraines. According to a report published by Work Foundation UK “Migraine costs the UK economy £8.8 billion per year in lost productivity.

SYMPTOMS;

Migraine symptoms vary from person to person, however the majority of patients presented with three main symptoms;

  • Headache which is usually onesided.people with migraine describe it as throbbing, crushing or pounding.
  • Sensitivity to light and sound
  • Nausea and vomiting

There are different phases of migraine like; prodrome phase, aura phase and resolution phase.

Many migraineurs experience vague vegetative or affective symptoms
as much as 24 hours prior to the onset of a migraine attack. This phase is called the prodrome and should not be confused with the aura phase. Aura phase is consist of neurological symptoms like sensitivity to light or sound.

Within an hour of resolution of the aura symptoms, the typical migraine headache usually appears with its unilateral throbbing pain and associated nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light(photophobia), or sound (phonophobia). This headache may persist for up to 72 hours if untreated and ended with resolution phase which is characterized by deep sleep.

causes;

The exact cause of migraine remains unclear, but there is often family history of migraine, suggestive of genetic predisposition. Additionally, research suggests that variations within the dopamine D2 receptor gene also may have some effect on susceptibility to migraine. Thus, genetic studies are providing important information about the molecular basis
of migraine. Migraine is also considered as a neurovascular disease because of throbbing nature of headache. According to Dr. John Detre, a professor of neurology and radiology:

Abnormalities in both the circle of Willis and blood flow were most prominent in the back of the brain, where the visual cortex is located. This may help explain why the most common migraine auras consist of visual symptoms such as seeing distortions, spots or wavy lines.”

Every one has different migrain trigger but there are few common triggers which may initiate the attack of migraine like;

  • Hormonal changes; The great female preponderance and the tendency for some women to have migraine attack at certain points in their menstrual cycle hint at hormonal influence.
  • Emotional stress; According to the American Headache Society, about 4 to 5 people with migraine report stress as a trigger.
  • DIET; certain food like alcohol, chocolates, curried meat, smoked fish, yeast extract, food preservatives that contain nitrities and nitrates, artificial sweetener and monosodium glutamate(MSG) may trigger a migraine.
  • Sleep; poor sleep reduces the levels of dopamine and serotonin, neurotransmitters, essential for and trigger migraine headache. one study shows that good sleep reduces both the number and frequency of mgraine in the participants.

Treatment and management

There is no specific treatment for migraine but certiain medicine can be effective for acute attack like

  • Painkillers like paracetamole, Aspirin with an antiemetic for vomitting like Metoclopramide
  • Antinflammatory like ibubrophin
  • Triptans like sumatriptan

if attacks are frequents, prevention of migraine can be treated by propranolol or tricyclic such as amitriptilyin

If you suspect a specific trigger is causing your migraines, such as stress or a certain type of food, avoiding this trigger may help reduce your risk of experiencing migraines.

It may also help to maintain a generally healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, sleep and meals, as well as ensuring you stay well hydrated and limiting your intake of caffeine and alcohol.

Keeping track of your migraine headach bu using migraine journal can help you identify the triggers and potentially reduces the frequency of your attack

If your migraines are severe or you have tried avoiding possible triggers and are still experiencing symptoms, a GP may prescribe medicines to help prevent further attacks.

Do not allow your life to be controlled by migraine.

Advanced Glycation End products and their link to chronic diseases.

Advanced glycation end products are pro-inflammatory molecules found in various foods (animal derived proteins and processed food). They also formed inside the body by a chemical reaction called Glycation. AGEs from diet absorbed partially in the intestine (only 30% ) and about two third of absorbed AGEs remain in the body for 3 day resulting in increased oxidative stress and inflammation.

Factors which may increase the formation of AGEs in food.

Urbarri and his colleagues formed a database of 560 different food and their AGEs content based on standard serving size. This database revealed that AGEs content of food depends on several factors like type of food, cooking temperature and cooking time.Food with higher content of proteins and fats are rich sources of exogenous AGEs as compared to carbohydrates.

  • Animal derived proteins have higher levels of AGEs, On the other hand, fresh fruits vegetables, low-fat milk and legumes have the lowest AGEs (Goldberg et al .,2004). The reason must be sought in the higher quantity of water and in a richer presence of vitamins and antioxidant molecules, which may be able to prevent AGE formation.
  • Cooking techniques; Different cooking techniques are linked to the formation of AGES like grilling, frying, roasting. Foods items processed by dry heat like chips cracker contains the highest level of AGEs per gram of food (Uribarri J, 2010) this processing method also increases AGEs content of lean red meat and poultry. As this pyramid shows formation of AGEs by different cooking techniques frying>grilled>boiled>raw.

   The AGES Pyramid                                                                      

AGEs and their link with chronic diseases;

Advanced glycation end products are believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of different diseases like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), diabetes, liver diseases, heart diseases, arthritis and kidney failure. our body can eliminate AGEs by enzymatic mechanisms and through the kidney. however, when we consume too much AGEs, they begin to accumulate in our body and promote oxidative stress and inflammation.There is also evidence that people with Diabetes and PCOS have higher levels of AGEs in their body as compared to healthy population.

How much do we need;

limited data is available regarding the exact amount of AGEs intake however, according to Uribarri, the average total daily adult consumption of AGEs in our diet is around 16,000 AGE kU/day. Therefore, a high-AGE diet is often referred to as anything significantly above 16,000 kilo units daily and anything well below this is considered as low AGEs diet.

How we generate low AGEs diet;

studies has shown that by restricting the dietary intake of AGEs in patients with diabetes and kidney diseases as well as in healthy people, reduces the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.one study reported that consumption of low AGEs diet over 4 weeks improve insulin resistance in overweight women .Some studies reported that reduced level of serum AGEs are associated with reduction in body fat mass and adipose tissues in women with PCOS.

Reduced intake of AGEs can be achieved by ;

  • Increasing the consumption of fish, legumes, low-fat milk products, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.one study reported that phytonutrients like iridoids found in deep red coloured berries can reduces AGEs formation in our body.
  • By reducing the intake of solid fats, fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and highly processed foods.
  • By switching cooking techniques; boiling, steaming and stewing reduces the production of AGEs in food. For example, the high AGE content of broiled chicken (5,828 kU/100 g) and broiled beef (5,963 kU/100 g) can be significantly reduced (1,124 kU/100 g and 2,230 kU/100 g, respectively) when the same piece of meat is either boiled or stewed.
  • The use of acidic marinades, such as lemon juice and vinegar, before cooking, can also be encouraged to limit dAGE generation.
  • Get active; regular physical activity may reduces the formation of AGEs inside the body.

Finally, more research is needed to fully understand the role of dietary AGEs in chronic diseases and a complete database on AGE content in different foods may helpful for future studies. however, low AGEs diet guidelines are consistent with the existing healthy eating recommendation. As with most dietary issues, the key is moderation: “Just diminish your exposure.


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

#Chronic#fatigue#syndrome CFS 
It is a medical condition of unknown cause affecting adults as well as children. 
#Symptoms
The main s
ymptom of CFS is extreme/constant fatigue, other symptoms are:
*lack of sleep(insomnia)
*Muscle or joint pain.
*Headaches.
*A sore throat or sore glands that aren’t swollen.
*Problems thinking, remembering or concentrating.
Flu-like symptoms,feeling dizzy or sick
*Fast or irregular heartbeats (heart palpitations.
*Symptoms of Irritable bowel Syndrome(IBS) like stomach pain altered bowel habits and bloating.
Does diet play any role in CFS treatment ???
Diet alone isn’t the cause, or cure, of CFS
poorly-balanced diet, can compromise your health. *Try to include low GI (Glycaemic Index) foods, such as oats and wholegrains, which slowly release energy, helping to keep your energy levels stable.
*Fruits and vegetables
*Dairy and alternative *Proteins like Beans, Pulses, fish and lean meat 


Keep hydrate urself 10-12 glasses of water or other forms of liquids but without added sugar can helps in keeping the body hydrated. 
There are some claims about the effectiveness of  #supplements  like Multivitamins, #Magnesium and #Omega3 fatty acids in CFS but any benefit of supplements in CFS is unproven and there is a need for further research in this area.